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This means that to use any media authoring and editing software is to use “new media.” Or, to unfold this statement: all media techniques and tools available in software applications are “new media”- regardless of whether a particular technique or program refers to previous media, physical phenomena, or a common task that existed before it was turned into software, or not. To write using Microsoft Word is to use new media. To take pictures with a digital camera is to use new media. To apply the Photoshop Clouds filter (Filters > Render > Clouds) that uses a purely automatic algorithmic process to create a cloud-like texture is to use new media. To draw brushstrokes using the Photoshop brush tool is to use new media.

In other words, regardless of where a particular technique would fall in our classification schemes, all these techniques are instances of one type of technology – interactive application software. And, as Kay and Goldberg explained in their 1977 article quoted earlier, interactive software is qualitatively different from all previous media. Over the next thirty years, these differences became only larger. Interactivity, customization, the possibility to both simulate other media and information technologies and to define new ones, processing of vast amounts of information in real-time, control and interaction with other machines such as sensors, support of both distributed asynchronous and real-time collaboration – these and many other functionalities enabled by modern software (of course, working together with middleware, hardware, and networks) separate software from all previous media and information technologies and tools invented by humans.

The Layers Menu For our final analysis, we will go outside the Filter menu and examine one of the key features of Photoshop that originally differentiated it from many “consumer” media editors – the Layers palette. The Layers feature was added to Photoshop 3.0, released in 1994. 16 To quote Photoshop Help, “Layers allow you to work on one element of an image without disturbing the others.” 17 From the point of view of media theory, however, the Layers feature is much more than that. It redefines both how images are created and what an “image” actually means. What used to be an indivisible whole becomes a composite of separate parts. This is both a theoretical point, and the reality of professional design and image editing in our software society. Any professional design created in Photoshop is likely to use multiple layers (in Photoshop CS4, a single image can have thousands of layers). Since each layer can always be made invisible, layers can also act as containers for elements that potentially may go into the composition; they can also hold different versions of these elements. A designer can control the transparency of each layer, group them together, change their order, etc.

Choose the filing status that has the best tax result for you.

A businessman calculating expenses at tax time image by Christopher Meder from

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Deciding the filing status you and your estranged wife should choose at tax time can be challenging. The Internal Revenue Service provides only two filing status choices for married couples — joint or separate. Your estranged wife can file separately, but depending on your situation you might qualify to select an unmarried filing status that yields better tax results and does not attach your wife to your return affairs.

Marital Status

You’re considered married for the entire tax year if you aren’t legally divorced or separated on or before Dec. 31. The IRS requires that married individuals file either a joint or separate return. If you file jointly, both you and your estranged wife must agree to do so. If you don't agree, you must file a separate return. However, if certain conditions are met, the IRS may consider you and your estranged wife unmarried.

Considered Unmarried

If you and your wife live apart for the last six months of the year, the IRS considers you unmarried even if you haven’t filed for legal separation. You and your wife can still choose to file a joint or separate return, but in some cases you might need to file as if you’re unmarried. It may be difficult to file a joint return if your estranged wife is not in communication with you. Filing a separate return is still an option, but there might be disadvantages in doing so, especially if you have dependent children or claim certain tax benefits. If you consider yourself unmarried under IRS rules, two options are a single filing status or head of household if you have a qualifying dependent.

Higher Tax Rates

If you choose a married filing separate status, both you and your estranged wife will have higher tax rates. This status has tax rates similar to those for single filers. If you have high income and claimed "married" on the W-4 withholding allowance certificate you gave to your employer, you may have insufficient withholding to cover your tax bill.

Loss of Tax Benefits

The IRS disallows or reduces many tax benefits to married taxpayers who file separate returns. For example, if you have capital losses or rental real estate losses, your deduction is reduced to half the regular rate. As of June 2012, if you file a separate return, you can deduct only up to $1,500 in capital losses and up to $12,500 in rental real estate losses. If you have dependent children and file separately, you can’t claim the child care credit, education benefits or the earned income credit. Filing as a single or head of household taxpayer in this case restores your ability to claim credits and deductions you’re eligible to take.

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About the Author

With a background in taxation and financial consulting, Alia Nikolakopulos has over a decade of experience resolving tax and finance issues. She is an IRS Enrolled Agent and has been a writer for these topics since 2010. Nikolakopulos is pursuing Bachelor of Science in accounting at the Metropolitan State University of Denver.

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Nelson city continues to experience strong growth in its population, visitors, development and the local economy.

This growth generates increased levels of subdivision and development activity which places greater pressure on the assets and services provided by the Council. Significant investment is required to meet the demands of growth through providing additional assets, or increasing the capacity of existing assets.

Historically, Council has sought a contribution towards the expansion of the city’s reserves, community facilities and infrastructure from those developments that place additional demands on these services. Council has previously levied these contributions under two pieces of legislation:

From the 1 July 2018 Council will only levy development contributions for all assets. These will apply to applications for a resource consent, building consent, or service connections received on or after that date. All growth-related costs for community facilities and reserve land that are attributable to development will be charged through development contributions.

Development Contributions Policy 2018

Download the Development Contributions Policy 2018 (1.9MB PDF)

Council has developed a calculating spreadsheet to assist applicants of simple residential developments to estimate the amount of development contributions that would be payable as a result of a resource consent, building consent or service connection. More complex and commercial developments will be assessed as part of the application and connection approval process. The policy specifies how all developments will be assessed.

Development Contributions 2018 Calculator (714KB XLSX)

Existing titles approved prior to 1 July 2018 will continue to be assessed under the policy relevant at the time the application was submitted, and in accordance with conditions or notes on the consent. Development Contributions are expected to gradually replace Financial Contributions over the next 10 years as developments come online. Council’s previous development and financial contributions policies are provided here:

Exemptions, Reconsiderations and Objections

Each policy outlines the exemptions, objections and reconsiderations process relevant to assessments undertaken under each policy.

Development Contributions:

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